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Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children – Part II

The list is neither exhaustive nor incontestable, but it does capture many highlights in the course of literacy acquisition that have been revealed through several decades of research. Of course, the timing of these accomplishments will to some extent depend on maturational and experiential differences among children.

Three – To Four-Year-Old Accomplishments

  • knows the alphabet letters are a special category of visual graphics that can be individually named
  • recognizes print in the local environment
  • knows that it is the print that is read in stories
  • understands that different text forms are used for different functions of print (e.g., list for groceries is different than the list on a menu)
  • pays attention to separable and repeating sounds in language (e.g., in Peter, Peter, Pumpkin Eater; Peter Eater)
  • uses new vocabulary and grammatical constructions in own speech
  • understands and follows oral directions
  • is sensitive to some sequences of events in stories
  • shows an interest in books and reading
  • when being read a story, connects information and events to real-life experiences
  • questions and comments demonstrate understanding of literal meaning of story being told
  • displays reading and writing attempts, calling attention to self: “look at my story”
  • can identify about 10 alphabet letters, especially those from own name
  • writes (scribbles) message as part of playful activity
  • may begin to attend to beginning or rhyming sounds in salient words

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